6 basic emotions
How emotions are formed[ edit ] Neurobiological explanation[ edit ] Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system , the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain. In many cases, ostensible reactions may obscure what you or others are really feeling. For example, anger may really be a manifestation of fear. Poor hygiene, infection, blood, rot, and death can also trigger a disgust response. Emotions can likely be mediated by pheromones see fear. According to Robert Plutchick, professor emeritus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, more than 90 different definitions of "emotion" have been put forth by psychologists with the aim of accurately describing what constitutes and differentiates human emotion. These more elaborate emotions are called first-order elaborations in Turner's theory and they include sentiments such as pride, triumph, and awe. Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions One of the most prominent theories of the 20th century is Robert Plutchik's wheel of emotions. Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology , a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior. Thanks for your feedback!
Your muscles become tense, your heart rate and respiration increase, and your mind becomes more alert, priming your body to either run from the danger or stand and fight. While Ekman's work helped highlight the effect of " nature or nurture " on emotional response, much of his theory has since been criticized when, inhe proposed that the same technique could be used as a means of lie detection.
And emotions can overlap. In philosophyemotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethicsthe philosophy of art for example, sensory—emotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentalityand the philosophy of music see also Music and emotion.
Emotions definition and types
Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology , a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior. In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience , scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood. The general consensus among scientists today is that the basic emotions, however many there may be, serve as the foundation for the more complex and subtle emotions that make up the human experience. There was an error. The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet,  an e-mail distribution list representing a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings. The Direction Model predicted that anger, an approach emotion, would activate the left prefrontal cortex. Surprise is often characterized by: Facial expressions such as raising the brows, widening the eyes, and opening the mouth Physical responses such as jumping back Verbal reactions such as yelling, screaming, or gasping Surprise is another type of emotion that can trigger the fight or flight response. The cognitive activity involved in the interpretation of an emotional context may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing. Griffiths and Andrea Scarantino, emphasizes the importance of external factors in the development and communication of emotion, drawing upon the situationism approach in psychology. Griffiths and Scarantino suggested that this perspective on emotion could be helpful in understanding phobias, as well as the emotions of infants and animals. George Mandler provided an extensive theoretical and empirical discussion of emotion as influenced by cognition, consciousness, and the autonomic nervous system in two books Mind and Emotion, ,  and Mind and Body: Psychology of Emotion and Stress,  There are some theories on emotions arguing that cognitive activity in the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughts are necessary in order for an emotion to occur. Prefrontal cortex[ edit ] There is ample evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is activated by stimuli that cause positive approach.
Others focus on the history of medicinescienceor psychology. Expressions of this type of emotion can include: Facial expressions such as widening the eyes and pulling back the chin Attempts to hide or flea from the threat Physiological reactions such as rapid breathing and heartbeat Of course, not everyone experiences fear in the same way.
Have you ever wondered what your personality type means? Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation a confederate displayed that emotion.
Again these can often be traced back to other emotions. Contemporary More contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.
A sophisticated defense of this view is found in philosopher Jesse Prinz's book Gut Reactions,  and psychologist James Laird's book Feelings.
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